Personal Genomics 101


The Human Genome Project was published.


In the year of 2006, the Archon X Prize for genomics was established. This prize intended to award $10 million to the first team that could build a device and use it to sequence 100 human genomes within 10 days or less. 


"Applied BioSystems started selling a new type of sequencer called SOLiD System. The technology allowed users to sequence 60 gigabases per run" ( 


Complete Genomics released a full sequence of a human genome that was sequenced using their service. Only 1 in every 100,000 variants was called incorrectly. Later that year, Complete Genomics had signed a deal with the Broad Institute to sequence cancer patients' genomes. Over the year, the number of genomes that they sequenced grew from 5 to 300 complete genomes. (


In early 2010, researchers from the Medical College of Wisconsin announced the first successful use of genome sequencing to change the treatment of a patient. Pacific Biosciences declared that they have raised more than $256 million in venture capital money and that they will be shipping their first ten full genome sequencing machines by the end of 2010. The company reported that the market initially will be researchers and academic institutions and then will rapidly turn into clinical applications that will be applicable to every single person in the world. ( 


"Knome provides full genome (98% genome) sequencing services for US$39,500 for consumers, or US$29,500 for researchers (depending on their requirements)" (

"Complete Genomics charges approximately US$10,000 to sequence a complete human genome (less for large orders)" (

"In May 2011, Illumina lowered its Full Genome Sequencing service to US$5,000 per human genome, or US$4,000 if ordering 50 or more" (

Helicos Biosciences, Pacific Biosciences, Complete Genomics, Illumina, Sequenom, ION Torrent Systems, Halcyon Molecular, NABsys, IBM, and GE Global appear to all be going head to head in the race to commercialize full genome sequencing. 

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